Apples provide both soluble and insoluble fiber, Vitamin C and Beta–Carotene. A high percentage of the fiber that an apple provides is soluble, and the majority of that is a type called pectin.
Barley flour is a finely ground flour made by grinding whole barley grain. Barley offers modest amounts of slowly digested starch and the soluble fiber ß-glucan
Beta-Carotene is an antioxidant. Research has shown that cell death occurs due to the process of oxidation, which is caused by what are called "free radicals."
Brown Rice is the entire rice kernel containing the nutrient-rich bran with only the rice hull removed. It is an excellent source of complex carbohydrates, provides quick energy and is loaded with B vitamins, magnesium, fatty acids and other minerals.
Calcium Iodate is a nutritional source of Iodine. Iodine helps the thyroid function
properly and perform a multiple of body functions including metabolism, nerve and
muscle function, the growth of skin and hair.
Cane molasses is the result of the manufacture of sucrose from sugar cane. It must contain not less than 43% total sugars expressed as invert and not less than 73% total solids. This ingredient is often used as a flavor or natural colorant.
Canola Oil is obtained by extracting the oil from canola seeds. It cannot contain more than 3% impurities. The oil provides the animal with calories needed for energy and the essential fatty acid alpha–linoleic acid necessary for a healthy coat.
Typically used as a colorant. It does however contribute aromas and flavors that add to the sensory qualities of the final product.
Carrots are an excellent source of fiber and minerals. Also a good natural source of beta-carotene, an antioxidant essential for neutralizing free radicals.
Defined as dark-colored porus forms of carbon made from the organic parts of vegetable or animal substances, by their incomplete combustion. Typically used as a colorant and odor absorber. It is an excellent source of calcium and magnesium phosphate.
Chicken is the clean combination of skin and flesh derived from whole chickens. It is an excellent source of high quality protein and fatty acids.
Chicken Fat is used as a fat source and is a highly palatable natural flavor that helps achieve the proper fatty acid profile necessary for healthy skin and coat. Old Mother Hubbard uses a naturally preserved chicken fat with mixed tocopherols (a source of natural Vitamin E) to maintain freshness. Fats do not cause allergies as they lack protein. Your pet can be allergic to chicken, but may not be allergic to chicken fat.
Chicken Liver is liver specifically from chicken. It is an excellent source of high quality protein and a rich source of Vitamins A, D and virtually all of the B vitamins.
As the chicken cooks, all of the fat and water are released, creating a concentrated,
highly-digestible protein and fat source.
Chondroitin Sulfate is part of a large protein molecule which gives cartilage it elasticity. It is believed to be helpful in maintaining cartilage in the animal.
Copper Proteinate / Copper Sulfate
Copper Proteinate/Copper Sulfate Two compounds which are used as a source of copper. The copper from copper proteinate is highly available while the copper from copper sulfate is less so. A trace mineral found in all body tissues, it works in cell respiration, synthesis of hemoglobin and production of collagen. It is also an antioxidant and helps prevent oxidation of fatty acids.
Cranberry Seeds are a source of protein with a balanced ratio of essential to non-essential amino acids. Along with being high in fiber content (soluble and insoluble) cranberry fiber is an excellent source of antioxidants and omega 3, 6 & essential fatty acids.
This water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life is also known as Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic Acid. Pantothenic acid is needed to form coenzyme-A (CoA), and is critical in the metabolism and synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. This vitamin is necessary for the conversion of fat and sugar into energy and promotes wound healing and antibody formation.
Defined as the dried, whole, cooked eggs (minus shells). It is often added to pet foods to increase the protein biological value. Raw egg whites contain avidin, which binds to biotin (B Vitamin) to make it unavailable to the pet. Therefore, it is not recommended to feed pets raw eggs.
An herb that helps prevent the formation of gas in the gastrointestinal tract and possesses anti-microbial actions, both of which help to freshen breath.
Ferrous Sulfate a source of iron. It provides oxygen to blood and helps with the digestion of fatty acids.
An excellent source of long chain Omega 3 fatty acids which are critical for healthy skin and coat.
Folic acid is another B-vitamin that is added to most pet foods. It helps form red blood cells and break down amino acids.
Garlic is valued for its anti-oxidant properties, as well as its enjoyable flavor.
Gelatin is a translucent, colorless, brittle (when dry) substance that is nearly tasteless and odorless. It is derived from collagen inside animals' skin and bones. It is commonly used as a gelling agent in food. Gelatin is an irreversibly hydrolyzed form of collagen amd is classified as a foodstuff.
Glucosamine is an amino sugar that occurs naturally in the joints of humans and animals. When supplemented it may help improve flexibility and reduce joint pain. It is extracted from shellfish (shrimp and crabs).
Also known as linseeds, flaxseeds are rich in Omega 3 fatty acids. Flaxseeds are high in fiber that adds bulk to the diet. Omega-3 fats in flaxseed also improve the shine of the pet’s coat. It also aids in the movement of food through the digestive system.
Herring is the clean tissue of undercomposed whole herring or herring parts. It
is a source of protein and long chain Omega 3 fatty acids which are critical for
healthy skin and coat, proper body function and enhanced learning of young puppies.
Herring oil is the oil extracted from whole or parts of herring. It is one of the
best sources of long chain Omega 3 fatty acids which are critical for healthy skin
and coat, proper body function and enhanced learning of young puppies.
Chelated source of iron. The iron from iron proteinate is highly available and it
provides oxygen to the blood and helps digestion of fatty acids.
See Live Micro-organism.
See Live Micro-organism.
See Live Micro-organism.
The clean flesh derived from lambs and is limited to that part of the striated muscle
which is skeletal or that which is found in the tongue, or heart, with or without
the accompanying and overlying fat and the portions of the skin, sinew, nerve, and
blood vessels which normally accompany the flesh. An excellent source of protein.
Lamb Meal offers a novel single source animal protein alternative with the water
removed, has a lower incidence of allergic response.
Carnitine or L-Carnitine is a vitamin like compound made in the body from the amino
acids lysine and methionine. It is found in animal-based, not plant based, sources
of protein. L-carnitine has been used to help with fat metabolism and recent scientific
studies suggest that it helps reduce weight in overweight dogs and cats.
Natural micro-flora (friendly bacteria) that may help the digestion process, thus
providing more efficient utilization of food and produce bacteriocins which act
as natural antibiotics.
Lysine is an essential amino acid for cats. It is also important for kittens that
have a propensity to suffer from upper respiratory health issues.
Manganese Proteinate/ Manganese Sulfate
Two compounds which are used as a source of manganese. The manganese from manganese
proteinate is a chelated source of manganese and is an antioxidant. It activates
many enzymes and helps utilize fatty acids. The manganese from manganese sulfate
is less available.
Menhaden Fish Meal
Menhaden fish meal is the clean, dried and ground tissue of undercomposed whole
menhaden with or without the extraction of part of the oil. It must not contain
more than 10% moisture. It is an excellent source of high quality protein, calcium,
phosphorus and long chain Omega 3 fatty acids which are critical for healthy skin
and coat, proper body function and promote brain development in young puppies.
Methionine is an essential amino acid for both dogs and cats. Some protein sources
(most notably soybean meal, meat & bone meal and poultry meal) do not provide
enough methionine. Therefore, it is often added to pet foods to ensure the animal
Ground millet is the entire product obtained in grinding millet. It is a nutritious
grain that is high in fiber and B-complex: niacin, thiamin, riboflavin and methionine.
This a mixture of differing forms of Vitamin E most often used as a preservative
or antioxidant to stabilize fats to prevent them from becoming rancid. Their stabilizing
effect depends on the type of fat used.
Natural Chicken Flavor
Natural Chicken Flavor is a powder or liquid made by taking clean animal tissue
(usually liver) and breaking it down using enzymes. Natural flavor is used for its
ability to improve the taste of dry foods. It is sprayed on the exterior of dry
Natural Fish Flavor
See natural chicken flavor.
While the B vitamin Niacin is present at high levels in most grains, unless properly
treated, most of the niacin in these ingredients is in a bound form and hence unavailable
to the pet. For this reason most manufacturers supplement their diets with niacin.
It helps process protein, carbohydrates and fat as well as promotes healthy nervous
and brain function.
Oatmeal is obtained in the manufacture of rolled oat groats or rolled oats and consists
of broken oat groats, oat groat chips and floury portions of the oat groats with
only such quantity of finely ground oat hulls as is unavoidable in the usual process
of commercial milling. It must not contain more than 4% crude fiber. Oatmeal is
an excellent source of highly digestible carbohydrates, protein and nutritional
Oat fiber is a purified form of fiber extracted from oat hulls. It is an excellent
source of both soluble and insoluble fiber.
Olive Oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the olive. Olive oil is regarded as a
healthful dietary oil because of its high content of monounsaturated fat (mainly
oleic fatty acid) and polyphenols. It is a blend of virgin oil and refined virgin
oil. It commonly lacks a strong flavor.
Omega Fatty Acids
Defined as polyunsaturated fatty acids which have a double carbon bond in the third
(O-3's) or sixth (O-6's) from last terminating carbon in the fatty acid. Common
Omega fatty acids include Linoleic, alpha Linoleic, EPA and DHA.
Pears are an excellent source of pectin.
Peas are an excellent source of protein and fiber. They are a great representative
of the "Green" vegetable group.
A potassium supplement typically found in pet food. It contains 40% potassium and
60% chloride. It is important in helping the pet maintain proper acid-base balance.
Potatoes are whole, freshly cooked potatoes that include the skins. Potatoes provide
B vitamins, carbohydrates, zinc, vitamin C, copper, iron, magnesium, niacin and
Prebiotics are usually composed of chicory root extract, of which the primary compound
is inulin. Inulin serves as a food source for the probiotics (see below).
See Live Micro-organisms
Pyridoxine hydrochloride is the most common form used when supplementing pet foods
with the B-vitamin pyridoxine. Pyridoxine is very important in helping the pet metabolize
Riboflavin is used to supply the diet with a B-complex vitamin. It helps promote
growth and helps assimilation of carbohydrates and amino acids.
Rice bran is the bran layer and germ of whole brown rice with only such quantity
of hull fragments chipped or broken rice as is unavoidable in the regular milling
of edible rice. It must not contain more than 13% crude fiber. An excellent source
of both soluble and insoluble fiber.
Unless listed as brown rice, rice is the de-hulled rice kernel, without the bran.
Rice is the preferred grain for feline diets as it is low in minerals, specifically
magnesium. Controlling the mineral content of a diet is especially important for
cats prone to urinary tract disease. Old Mother Hubbard uses some whole rice and
some ground rice in the dietary solutions recipes.
Rice protein is the dried material from rice after the removal of the starch and
separation of the bran by milling. It typically contains a minimum of 60% protein.
Rosemary (Rosemarinus Officinalis) is a highly effective natural preservative high
Rye flour consists of flour together with fine particles of rye bran.
Salmon is the clean tissue of un-decomposed whole salmon or salmon cuttings. It
is an excellent source of high quality protein, calcium, phosphorous and long chain
Omega 3 fatty acids, which are critical for healthy skin, coat and proper body function.
Salmon is cooked down, creating a concentrated, highly digestible protein and fat
source known as salmon meal. For out cat foods we source and select special low
ash salmon meal as to control mineral levels that contribute to proper urinary health.
It is an excellent source of high quality protein, calcium, phosphorous and long
chain Omega 3 fatty acids, which are critical for healthy skin, coat and proper
body function as well as promotes brain development of kittens, puppies and babies.
A sodium and chloride supplement typically found in pet food. It contains 39% sodium
and 61% chloride. It is important in helping the pet maintain proper fluid balance.
Salmon oil is high in Omega 3 fatty acid, specifically EPA and DHA.
The sea cucumber is an ocean living invertebrate and is used because it serves as
a rich source of the polysaccharide chondroiton sulfate, which is believed to be
helpful in maintaining and promoting healthy joints in the animal.
A source of the trace mineral selenium. Since animals require only about 0.1 parts
per million of selenium, sodium selenite does not contribute any significant amounts
of sodium. This helps to regulate the body's water balance.
Sorghum is a grain which primarily is used as a source of carbohydrates. It contains
more fiber and less fat that most other grains. It is not as digestible as rice,
and as such is sometimes used to help control blood sugar. It is also referred to
Spinach is exceptionally rich in carotenoids, including beta-carotene and lutein,
and also contains quercetin, a phytochemical with antioxidant properties. Spinach
is also a good source of magnesium and manganese.
Spirulina is a blue-green algae. It is a simple, one-celled form of algae that thrives
in warm, alkaline fresh-water bodies. The name "spirulina" is derived from the Latin
word for "spiral". Spirulina contains more than 60% protein and is also a concentrated
source of a number of other nutrients including vitamin B12, beta carotene and gamma
Originally native to North America squash were used as food in Mexico as early as
5,000 BC. The colonists of New England adopted the name squash, a word derived from
several Native American words for the vegetable . Squash or zucchini is an excellent
source of beta carotene, vitamin C and potassium.
Sunflower oil is obtained by extracting the oil from sunflower seeds. It cannot
contain by definition more than 3% impurities. The oil provides the animal with
calories needed for energy and the essential fatty acid alpha-linoleic acid (an
omega-6 fatty acid) essential for a shiny coat and healthy skin.
Sweet Potatoes are excellent source of complex carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals
and Beta Carotene. The starch in sweet potatoes converts to sugar easily and provides
quick energy. Sweet potatoes are not part of the "Night Shade" family.
Taurine is a compound similar to amino acids. It is essential for the proper functioning
of the eyes and heart.
Form of thiamin or vitamin B1. Thiamin is easily destroyed by high heat, so most
dry foods and all canned foods should be supplemented with additional thiamin.
Tomato Pomace is the mixture of tomato skins, pulp and crushed seeds. It is an excellent
source of soluble fiber and rich in the antioxidant lycopene.
Whole tomatoes are an excellent source of vitamin C and especially rich in the carotenoid
lycopene which is an important anti-oxidant.
Turkey is the clean combination of skin and flesh without the bone derived from
whole turkeys. It is an excellent source of high quality protein and essential fatty
The clean flesh derived from deer and is limited to that part of the striate muscle
which is skeletal with or without the accompanying and overlying fat and the portions
of the skin, sinew, nerve, and blood vessels which normally accompany the flesh.
Venison is an excellent source of protein.
Vitamin A (Acetate), Vitamin D-3
These supplements are added to almost all pet foods as a vitamin source. Vitamin
A is sometimes labeled as vitamin A-acetate and Vitamin D as cholecalciferol. Both
of these fat soluble vitamins are required in the diet, although diets containing
liver are often not supplemented with Vitamin A, because liver is an excellent source
of vitamin A.
Vitamin B12 Supplement
Although usually referred to on labels as vitamin B12, this B-vitamin is sometimes
called by its chemical name cyanocobalamin. Vitamin B12 is only found in animal
based ingredients, and most animals obtain enough vitamin B12 from the microbes
in their gut. Animals on antibiotics may require supplemental vitamin B12.
Vitamin E Supplement
This supplement is added to almost all pet foods as a vitamin source. It is sometimes
labeled as d-alpha-Tocopherol acetate. It is a fat soluble vitamin, which is required
in your pet’s diet.
Wheat is a grain which primarily is used as a source of carbohydrates. It is also
an inexpensive source of protein and fat. The more processed the wheat, the more
digestible, i.e.: ground wheat will be more digestible than whole wheat. It is not
as digestible as rice, but does provide more fats and protein than rice.
Wheat flour consists of flour together with fine particles of wheat bran and wheat
germ. The product must not contain more than 1.5% crude fiber.
Whitefish is cooked down, creating a concentrated, highly digestible protein and
fat source known as whitefish meal. For our cat foods, we source and select special
low ash whitefish meal as to control mineral levels that contribute to proper urinary
health. It is an excellent source of high quality protein, calcium, phosphorous
and long chain Omega 6 fatty acids, which are critical for healthy skin, coat and
Yucca Schidigera Extract
Yucca is a desert plant. It is a natural source of digestive aid. It is also known
to reduce fecal odor.
Zinc Proteinate/Zinc Sulfate
These compounds are used as a source of zinc. Zinc proteinate is highly available
(chelated) and is important for proper maintenance of hair, skin, bones, muscles
and blood. It also helps with digestion and reproduction.